A Group Two Subject/Course : NB: No exemption is permitted from this subject.
- To ensure a thorough knowledge and understanding of Liner business.
- To develop relevant communication skills.
Definitions Of Liner Trades
- The characteristics of liner services. The Liner Trades of the world, trade routes and ports. East/west and north/south trades.
- Service options including round the world (RTW), pendulum, hub and spoke.
- Vessel types – break-bulk, Con-bulk, Ro-Ro, LASH, Reefer and other specialist ships. Container ships including cellular/non cellular, post panamax, hatchless, ‘fast ships’, etc.
- Terminology of measurements including dimensions, tonnages, cubic capacities, TEUs.
- Cargo handling equipment on board. Hatches & hold layouts, ro-ro access and other specialised configurations.
Port Terminals And Cargo Handling
- Commodities – break bulk, palletised and containerised. Heavy lifts, Out of gauge, IMO Dangerous cargo regulations.
- Port & terminal operations and systems: terminal layout, cargo handling systems and equipment.
- Other port facilities and value added services.
Liner Shipping Opperations
- Liner Operating Companies: Structure, management, technical, operations,
- Liner Marketing and sales: in-house or independent agency, FONASBA Liner agency agreements, hinterland sales & agency, sub agents.
- Ship husbandry and port agency.
- Shippers, forwarders and NVOs. Logistics operators. e-commerce.
Containerisation, Intermodal Transport & Logistics
- The concept of unitisation and intermodalism.
- Container types and terminology.
- Non-port depots. Inland haulage; Carrier/Merchant haulage, Feeder services.
- Container management, owning/leasing, repairs and interchange.
Liner Industry Structure
- Economic trends – balancing supply and demand, capacity management options.
- Conferences, consortia and alliances: Concepts of the contemporary conference system. Control and regulation including Federal Maritime Commission (USA), Competition Directorate (Europe).
- Economies of scale, mergers and market share.
Bills Of Lading And Other Documents
- The paramount importance of bills of lading in the Liner Trades.
- The functions of bills of lading and their role in international trade.
- Bill of lading legislation – UK Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992 or equivalent national legislation.
- Hague/Hague Visby & Hamburg rules. Rules for combined transport including UNCTAD/ ICC.
- Clean and ‘dirty’ Bills of Lading. Letters of indemnity, their use, misuse and the avoidance of fraud.
- Types of Bills of Lading: ocean, through, combined transport, waybills. Major and usual clauses.
- Other documentation – Booking notes, Shipping notes, Manifests, Dangerous cargo declarations.
- Regulatory control of imports and exports including customs procedures and licensing.
- Computers: Application in liner trades and development of paperless trading.
Tariff Construction, Pricing And Agreements
- Freight rates and Tariff structures including commodity, weight or volume;
advantages and drawbacks.
- Adjustment factors including currency fluctuation, bunker charges, war risks and congestion.
- Container tariffs – their structure and relevance.
- Pricing management including maximising contribution, revenue or market share, marginal pricing of vacant capacity.
Financial Aspects Of Import And Export
- Sale of Goods and INCOTERMS.
- Methods of payment and their impact on shipping documents. ICC Uniform Custom and Practice.
Legal Aspects Of Liner Trades
- Carriers limitation of liability, Carriers and Merchants responsibilities.
- Cargo claims, role and responsibilities of the parties. Noting Protest.
- Insurance arrangements: hull & machinery insurance, P & I Associations.
- General Average concept and documentation.
- Liabilities of the Agent: Agent’s authority including binding the Principal, fiduciary duty, breach of warranty of authority.