Ship Operations & Management
A Group Two Subject/Course : NB: No exemption is permitted from this subject.
- To ensure a thorough knowledge and understanding of Ship Operations and Management.
- To develop relevant communication skills.
Shipowners, Operations And Managers
- Key functions in ship management: commercial, operational, technical, crewing, bunkers, finance & administration.
- Type of organisational structure: in-house, all or part contracted out.
Shipmanagement contracts (BIMCO Shipman)
- Design and construction with particular reference to suitability for cargoes and trades
- Dry Trades: Liner Trades – conventional tween decker, multi-purpose vessel, containership, Ro/Ro cargo, barge carriers
- Tramp Trades – conventional bulk vessel (handy size, panamax, capesize)
ore carriers; combination carriers (ore/oil, ore/bulk/oil), refrigerated ships.
- Wet Trades: Crude (ULCC, VLCC, Suezmax, Aframax) Product
Carrier; chemical carrier; gas carriers; specialist vessels
Ship-borne cargo handling gear including heavy lift and self unloaders
- Terminology of measurements including dimensions, tonnages, cubic capacities, TEUs. Content and information available from capacity, general arrangement and stowage plans.
Registration, Classification, Port State Control, ISM Code
- Choice of flag, flag states, offshore registries and flags of convenience.
- The role and function of classification societies. Classification societies registers.
- Class maintenance programmes and class surveys.
- Safety certification. Port State Control.
- Other surveys including on/off hire, pre-loading and bunkers
- ISM Code – origin, application and audits.
- Environmental protection; pollution liability.
- Fixed costs – return on capital, amortisation, debt servicing.
- Daily operating costs – crew expenses, victualling, stores, lubricants, insurance, P & I calls (including reserve for deductible), repair/ maintenance, dry docking, communication.
- Voyage related costs – bunkers, port costs (including tugs, pilots, agency fees), canal dues, loading/discharging costs.
- Budgeting and financial results.
- Manning levels, recruiting officers and ratings. The Master and his authority. Using crewing agencies.
- International regulations: Standards of Training, Certification & Watchkeeping (STCW),
International Labour Organisation (ILO), International Transport Workers Federation (ITF). National trade unions.
- Essential elements of crew costs; basic wages, overtime, allowances, leave, social costs. Crew nationalities, mixed crews.
- Hull and Machinery. Markets and placements. Institute warranties. Institute Time Clauses.
- Additional cover (war risk, ice etc.), Total Loss, Constructive Total Loss (CTL).
- P & I – The constitution and cover provided by mutual associations. Strike insurance, pollution insurance.
- General Average when and why to declare it. The role and function of average adjusters.
- Coping with casualties. Limitations of liability, salvage claims. Lloyds Open Form and salvage arbitrations.
- Cargo claims.
- Commercial Operations: voyage instructions, loading and discharging, compliance with contract including speed and performance issues. Other post fixture matters.
- Technical Operations: Repair & maintenance, stores, dry docking.
- Vessel routing: geographical and meteorological considerations, load line zones, canals and waterways.
Stowage factors; Characteristics; Stow plans & stability; compatibility, cleanliness, segregation etc.; IMDG Code, Outturn reports, tallying, sampling & disputes; Cargo damage, survey & reports.
Bunkers: Types of fuel supplied and their characteristics; Main bunker ports. Key players in the bunker market, contracts (use of FuelCon), quantity and quality measurement, sampling and testing.
- Freight/hire collection, port disbursements, dealing with port agents.
- Demurrage/despatch claims. Dealing with contractors and sub-contractors including Tugs, Pilots, Stevedores, Terminal operators, Riggers, Hold/Tank cleaners, slop disposal services, dry docks, engine builders, lubricant and bunker supplies, repairers, ship chandlers etc.
- Route calculations. Maximising cargo lift – load line zones and stability issues.
- Bunker planning – choice of bunker ports.
- Comparing different employment offers and alternative routes.
Law Relating To Ship Management
The legal position of the ship managers in relation to; cargo claims; arrest in rem; freezing orders and late hire payment.