Port and Terminal Management

Port And Terminal Management

A Group Two Subject/Course


  1. To ensure a thorough knowledge and understanding of Port and Terminal Managemnet.
  2. To develop relevant communication skills.

Ports And Their Functions

  • The role of ports in international trade and transport and how ports can benefit or detract from the economics development of countries and their sea-borne trade.
  • The effect of globalisation on port choice and how changes in logistics and distribution patterns influence the development or decline of ports.
  • The geographic reasons for port location and the extent to which this may depend on the nature of their hinterland and natural resources
  • Different types of ports and access to ports (natural, man made, river, estuary) and the diversity of specialist port operations.
  • The enhanced role of ports in a through transport context – hub ports, feeder/transhipment ports, intermodal interfaces.
  • The different forms of the ownership structure of ports and of port services; public/private, landlord only, full or part service provider, terminal facilities within ports.

Ships And Cargoes

  • The fundamental differences between dry bulk cargo ships, general-purpose ships, liners (container, break-bulk and Ro-Ro) and tankers, including Ore/Oil and Ore/Bulk/Oil carriers. (Students may be expected to produce sketches).
  • The different categories of Tankers including carriers for crude-oil, petroleum products, chemicals, liquid gases, vegetable oils etc.
  • The purpose and basic design and construction features of decks, holds, hatches, derricks, winches cranes and other cargo handling gear.
  • Terminology of measuring ships including pseudo-tonnages – NT and GT. Actual tonnages – deadweight (dwat & dwcc) displacement (total and light). Capacities – bale cubic & grain cubic, TEU. Stowage Plans.
  • Ship types are required for the different cargoes and trade routes.
  • Basic characteristics of the main five commodities namely Coal, Ore, Grain, Fertilizers and Oil.
  • Hazards associated with the transport of certain commodities.
  • Special requirements of unitised liner cargoes.
  • The main places of origin and appropriate trade routes of other important cargoes plus any seasonal variations. Working knowledge of distances and voyage times.
  • A good grounding in maritime geography and access to an atlas is essential for this part of the syllabus.

Port Management

  • The basic rationale of port business.
  • How ports are structured to meet the delivery of services and the relationship between infrastructure, conservancy, navigation and handling facilities.
  • How the activities are organised to interface with one another and typical port organisational structure.
  • How port performance can be measured – vessel turn round time, cargo volume, speed of cargo handling, damage and pilferage prevention.
  • Responsibility for and nature of marine operations – conservancy, dredging, navigation aids, navigation control etc.
  • Management of cargo operations on board and ashore. Understand the prime importance of avoiding traffic and cargo congestion.
  • The importance of safety management.
  • The importance of security to prevent terrorism, illegal immigration, theft and smuggling.
  • The role of trade unions and other labour organisations including ITF.
  • The role of statutory bodies – Customs, Immigration, Port Health, Marine Safety etc.
  • Understanding of the needs of port users – shipowners and operators, ship agents, forwarders, truckers, rail and barge operators.
  • Information flow requirements of the port, statutory bodies and port users.How these are met by port community computer systems.

Port Competition & Marketing

  • The nature of port competition – national and international.
  • The need for market information – trade growth, vessel development, commercial needs, financial viability.
  • The relevance of geographic location to vessel transit time and port rotation.
  • The role of shipowners/ship operators, shippers/receivers, freight contractors, forwarders and other transport interests (eg railways, road hauliers).
  • Techniques of port promotion – identification of potential users.
  • The impact of inland transportation and inland depot/handling facilities.
  • The scope for collaboration on through transport.

Port Pricing

  • The nature and types of port charges – statutory navigational, services to vessels, services to cargoes.
  • The cost factors in pricing – infrastructure, navigation services, equipment, staff and labour, marketing, security and safety, environmental.
  • Pricing policy – ‘not for profit’, government influenced, fully commercial.
  • Effects of competition on pricing policy.
  • Pricing as a tool to influence demand.
  • Factors used in establishing pricing structures – lengths of time included in base charge for vessels and cargo; units on which charges are based; simplicity of application and transparency; volume rebates.
  • Regulatory mechanisms; user appeals against charges.
  • The integration of port charges with charges of other port operator and inland transport organisations.
  • Through transport charges.

Legal Aspects Of Port Management

  • The nature of port constitutions and the legal framework of ownership.
  • Port laws and bye-laws, national legislation.
  • The development of port facilities; the financing of port development.
  • Law relating to port security, operators’ liability and insurance.
  • Laws and regulations relating to the employment of dockworkers.
  • The freedom of port organisations to diversify their activities.
  • Development, ownership and control of Free Ports and Free Zones.
  • The impact of international conventions on ports.

Port Planning

  • Port development policy – governmental role, regional needs, competition.
  • Planning principles and project planning – role of traffic forecasts, analysis of demand factors, implications for marketing, involvement of users.
  • Infrastructure/operating structure.
  • Joint ventures for financing or management, policies for common user and sole user terminals.
  • Capacity calculations, relationship between berth occupancy, service time and waiting time, berth throughput.
  • Port layout, physical constraints, terminal planning, specialised terminals, multipurpose terminals and support operations.
  • The requirements of commodities – break bulk, neo-bulk, special cargoes, dry bulk, liquid bulk etc.
  • Flow analysis of cargo in a terminal.
  • Environmental factors and constraints.

Port Finance

  • Financial management of ports – budgets, capital and revenue expenditures, investment appraisal.
  • Financial and commercial objectives, analysis and monitoring of costs, port cost accounting.
  • Corporate analysis of financial data, budgetary planning and control.
  • Project evaluation and review techniques, capital budgeting.
  • Financial and economics appraisal of port proposals and traffic forecasting.

Port Equipment

  • Port buildings, transit sheds, warehouses, maintenance workshops, amenity buildings, offices for port users etc.
  • Cargo handling equipment, type cost and numbers, maintenance management.
  • Future changes in vessels and cargo handling.
  • The effect of vessel size.
  • Procurement and materials management.

Port Ownership

  • Different types of ownership: national or local government owned and managed, other public sector-owned ports and port trusts.
  • The trend towards deregulation of ports.
  • Transfer from state to private ownership, methods of privatisation; sale of shares, management and employee buyouts.
  • Private sector owned ports; different types of ownership, outright, public sector ownership of port infrastructure combined
  • with private sector provision, public ownership of port superstructure with private management and/or operation.
  • Lease contracts; joint ventures.


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